ZEPOSIA is indicated for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS), to include clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting disease, and active secondary progressive disease, in adults.1
a 2659 patients includes all 3 arms of the study: the 0.92-mg dose of ZEPOSIA, the 0.46-mg dose of ZEPOSIA (not approved for maintenance dose), and the 30-μg dose of Avonex.2,3
bStudy designs: SUNBEAM (1 year; N=1346) and RADIANCE (2 years; N=1313) were multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active treatment-controlled studies of daily oral ozanimod 0.46 mg (not approved for maintenance dose) or 0.92 mg vs weekly Avonex (interferon beta-1a), 30-μg intramuscular injection. Primary endpoint:ZEPOSIA reduced ARR vs Avonex by 48% at 1 year (0.18 vs 0.35, respectively) and by 38% at 2 years (0.17 vs 0.28, respectively). Secondary endpoints: ZEPOSIA reduced the number of new or enlarging T2 lesions by 48% at 1 year and by 42% at 2 years and reduced the number of GdE lesions vs Avonex by 63% at 1 year and 53% at 2 years. 9 of 10 patients showed no confirmed 3-month disability progression. There was no significant difference in 3-month confirmed disability between ZEPOSIA and Avonex.1-3
cA relapse was defined as the occurrence of new or worsening neurological symptoms persisting for more than 24 hours attributable to MS and immediately preceded by a relatively stable or improving neurological state of at least 30 days.2,3
dAdverse reactions:Overall incidence of adverse reactions for ZEPOSIA vs Avonex at 1 year was 59.8% and 75.5%, respectively, and at 2 years was 74.7% and 83.0%, respectively. Across 2 head-to-head trials, the most common adverse reactions with an incidence of at least 2% in patients treated with ZEPOSIA and at least 1% greater than Avonex, respectively, were as follows: upper respiratory infection, 26% (vs 23%); hepatic transaminase elevation, 10% (vs 5%); orthostatic hypotension, 4% (vs 3%); urinary tract infection, 4% (vs 3%); back pain, 4% (vs 3%); hypertension, 4% (vs 2%); and abdominal pain upper, 2% (vs 1%). Data are not an adequate basis for comparison of rates between ZEPOSIA and the active control. Upper respiratory infection includes nasopharyngitis, upper respiratory tract infection, pharyngitis, respiratory tract infection, bronchitis, rhinitis, respiratory tract infection viral, viral upper respiratory tract infection, rhinorrhea, tracheitis, and laryngitis. Hepatic transaminase elevation includes alanine aminotransferase increased, gamma-glutamyl transferase increased, aspartate aminotransferase increased, hepatic enzyme increased, liver function test abnormal, and transaminase increased. Hypertension includes hypertension, essential hypertension, and orthostatic hypertension. Overall discontinuation rates for ZEPOSIA vs Avonex at 1 year were 6% and 8%, respectively, and at 2 years were 10% and 15%, respectively. Discontinuation rates due to adverse reactions for ZEPOSIA vs Avonex at 1 year were 2.9% and 3.6%, respectively, and at 2 years were 3.0% and 4.1%, respectively. Serious infections: The rate of serious infections at 1 year for ZEPOSIA was 1.1% vs 0.7% for Avonex and the rate at 2 years for ZEPOSIA was 0.9% vs 0.9% for Avonex. Malignancy rates: The rate of malignancies at 1 year for ZEPOSIA was 0.2% vs 0% for Avonex and the rate at 2 years for ZEPOSIA was 0.9% vs 0.5% for Avonex.1-3
eBefore initiating treatment with ZEPOSIA, all patients require a recent CBC including lymphocyte count (within 6 months or after discontinuation of prior MS therapy), an ECG to check for preexisting conduction abnormalities, a recent liver function test (within 6 months), and consideration of current and prior medications, including vaccinations.1 Patients without a confirmed history of varicella (chickenpox) or without documented VZV vaccination should be tested for antibodies. If VZV or other live attenuated immunizations are required, administer at least 1 month prior to initiation.1 For patients with a history of uveitis or macular edema, an ophthalmic assessment is required.1 An up-titration scheme should be used to reach the maintenance dosage of ZEPOSIA, as a transient decrease in heart rate and atrioventricular conduction delays may occur.1
fDiabetes mellitus and uveitis increase the risk of macular edema; patients with a history of these conditions should have an ophthalmic evaluation of the fundus, including the macula, prior to treatment initiation. A prompt ophthalmic evaluation is recommended if there is any change in vision while taking ZEPOSIA.1
ZEPOSIA is an oral drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration for relapsing forms of MS that belongs to a category of compounds classified as S1P receptor modulators, which are disease-modifying therapies. ZEPOSIA is a drug to treat patients with relapsing forms of MS, including patients with clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting MS, and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS)—all diseases that affect the central nervous system. In clinical trials (a 1‑year trial and a 2‑year trial), ZEPOSIA was tested head-to-head against Avonex, not a placebo group. ZEPOSIA is an oral treatment for multiple sclerosis, not an injectable or an IV infusion.1
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References: 1. ZEPOSIA. Prescribing information. Bristol Myers Squibb; 2020.
2. Comi G, Kappos L, Selmaj KW, et al; SUNBEAM Study Investigators. Safety and efficacy of ozanimod versus interferon beta-1a in relapsing multiple sclerosis (SUNBEAM): a multicentre, randomised, minimum 12-month, phase 3 trial. Lancet Neurol. 2019;18(11):1009-1020 and Suppl 1-26. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(19)30239-X
3. Cohen JA, Comi G, Selmaj KW, et al; RADIANCE Trial Investigators. Safety and efficacy of ozanimod versus interferon beta-1a in relapsing multiple sclerosis (RADIANCE): a multicentre, randomised, 24-month, phase 3 trial. Lancet Neurol. 2019;18(11):1021-1033 and Suppl 1-31. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(19)30238-8
4. Gilenya. Prescribing information. Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation; 2019.
5. Mayzent. Prescribing information. Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation; 2019.
6. Marrie RA. Comorbidity in multiple sclerosis: implications for patient care. Nat Rev Neurol. 2017;13(6):375-382. doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.33
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
ZEPOSIA is indicated for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS), to include clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting disease, and active secondary progressive disease, in adults.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
Patients who in the last 6 months, experienced myocardial infarction, unstable angina, stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), decompensated heart failure requiring hospitalization, or Class III/IV heart failure or have a presence of Mobitz type II second or third-degree atrioventricular (AV) block, sick sinus syndrome, or sino-atrial, unless the patient has a functioning pacemaker
Patients with severe untreated sleep apnea
Patients taking a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor
Infections: ZEPOSIA may increase the susceptibility to infections. Life-threatening and rare fatal infections have occurred in patients receiving ZEPOSIA. Obtain a recent (i.e., within 6 months or after discontinuation of prior MS therapy) complete blood count (CBC) including lymphocyte count before initiation of ZEPOSIA. Delay initiation of ZEPOSIA in patients with an active infection until the infection is resolved. Consider interruption of treatment with ZEPOSIA if a patient develops a serious infection. Continue monitoring for infections up to 3 months after discontinuing ZEPOSIA
Herpes zoster was reported as an adverse reaction in ZEPOSIA-treated patients. Herpes simplex encephalitis and varicella zoster meningitis have been reported with sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators. Patients without a healthcare professional-confirmed history of varicella (chickenpox), or without documentation of a full course of vaccination against varicella zoster virus (VZV), should be tested for antibodies to VZV before initiating ZEPOSIA. A full course of vaccination for antibody-negative patients with varicella vaccine is recommended prior to commencing treatment with ZEPOSIA
Cases of fatal cryptococcal meningitis (CM) were reported in patients treated with another S1P receptor modulator. If CM is suspected, ZEPOSIA should be suspended until cryptococcal infection has been excluded. If CM is diagnosed, appropriate treatment should be initiated.
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an opportunistic viral infection of the brain that typically occurs in patients who are immunocompromised, and that usually leads to death or severe disability. No cases of PML were identified in active-controlled MS clinical trials with ZEPOSIA. PML has been reported in patients treated with S1P receptor modulators and other MS therapies and has been associated with some risk factors. If PML is suspected, withhold ZEPOSIA and perform an appropriate diagnostic evaluation. If confirmed, treatment with ZEPOSIA should be discontinued
In clinical studies, patients who received ZEPOSIA were not to receive concomitant treatment with antineoplastic, non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive, or immune-modulating therapies used for treatment of MS. Concomitant use of ZEPOSIA with any of these therapies would be expected to increase the risk of immunosuppression. When switching to ZEPOSIA from immunosuppressive medications, consider the duration of their effects and their mode of action to avoid unintended additive immunosuppressive effects
Use of live attenuated vaccines should be avoided during and for 3 months after treatment with ZEPOSIA. If live attenuated vaccine immunizations are required, administer at least 1 month prior to initiation of ZEPOSIA
Bradyarrhythmia and Atrioventricular Conduction Delays: Since initiation of ZEPOSIA may result in a transient decrease in heart rate and atrioventricular conduction delays, dose titration is recommended to help reduce cardiac effects. Initiation of ZEPOSIA without dose escalation may result in greater decreases in heart rate. If treatment with ZEPOSIA is considered, advice from a cardiologist should be sought for those individuals:
with significant QT prolongation
with arrhythmias requiring treatment with Class 1a or III anti-arrhythmic drugs
with ischemic heart disease, heart failure, history of cardiac arrest or myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, and uncontrolled hypertension
with a history of Mobitz type II second-degree or higher AV block, sick-sinus syndrome, or sinoatrial heart block
Liver Injury: Elevations of aminotransferases may occur in patients receiving ZEPOSIA. Obtain liver function tests, if not recently available (i.e., within 6 months), before initiation of ZEPOSIA. Patients who develop symptoms suggestive of hepatic dysfunction should have hepatic enzymes checked and ZEPOSIA should be discontinued if significant liver injury is confirmed. Caution should be exercised when using ZEPOSIA in patients with history of significant liver disease
Fetal Risk: There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Based on animal studies, ZEPOSIA may cause fetal harm. Women of childbearing potential should use effective contraception to avoid pregnancy during treatment and for 3 months after stopping ZEPOSIA
Increased Blood Pressure: Increase in systolic pressure was observed after about 3 months of treatment and persisted throughout treatment. Blood pressure should be monitored during treatment and managed appropriately. Certain foods that may contain very high amounts of tyramine could cause severe hypertension in patients taking ZEPOSIA. Patients should be advised to avoid foods containing a very large amount of tyramine while taking ZEPOSIA
Respiratory Effects: ZEPOSIA may cause a decline in pulmonary function. Spirometric evaluation of respiratory function should be performed during therapy, if clinically indicated
Macular edema: S1P modulators have been associated with an increased risk of macular edema. Patients with a history of uveitis or diabetes mellitus are at increased risk. Patients with a history of these conditions should have an ophthalmic evaluation of the fundus, including the macula, prior to treatment initiation and regular follow-up examinations. An ophthalmic evaluation is recommended in all patients at any time if there is a change in vision. Continued use of ZEPOSIA in patients with macular edema has not been evaluated; potential benefits and risks for the individual patient should be considered if deciding whether ZEPOSIA should be discontinued
Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES): Rare cases of PRES have been reported in patients receiving a S1P receptor modulator. If a ZEPOSIA-treated patient develops unexpected neurological or psychiatric symptoms or any symptom/sign suggestive of an increase in intracranial pressure, a complete physical and neurological examination should be conducted. Symptoms of PRES are usually reversible but may evolve into ischemic stroke or cerebral hemorrhage. Delay in diagnosis and treatment may lead to permanent neurological sequelae. If PRES is suspected, treatment with ZEPOSIA should be discontinued
Unintended Additive Immunosuppressive Effects From Prior Immunosuppressive or Immune-Modulating Drugs: When switching from drugs with prolonged immune effects, the half-life and mode of action of these drugs must be considered to avoid unintended additive immunosuppressive effects while at the same time minimizing risk of disease reactivation. Initiating treatment with ZEPOSIA after treatment with alemtuzumab is not recommended
Severe Increase in Disability After Stopping ZEPOSIA: Severe exacerbation of disease, including disease rebound, has been rarely reported after discontinuation of a S1P receptor modulator. The possibility of severe exacerbation of disease should be considered after stopping ZEPOSIA treatment so patients should be monitored upon discontinuation
Immune System Effects After Stopping ZEPOSIA: After discontinuing ZEPOSIA, the median time for lymphocyte counts to return to the normal range was 30 days with approximately 90% of patients in the normal range within 3 months. Use of immunosuppressants within this period may lead to an additive effect on the immune system, therefore caution should be applied when initiating other drugs 4 weeks after the last dose of ZEPOSIA
Most common Adverse Reactions (≥ 4%): upper respiratory infection, hepatic transaminase elevation, orthostatic hypotension, urinary tract infection, back pain, and hypertension.